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新疆的职业技能教育培训工作(7)(中英对照)

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VI. Experience in Countering Extremism

六、探索出去极端化的有益经验
Over the years, in response to the threats posed by terrorism and extremism, and in order to prevent them from breeding and expanding, and to guarantee individual safety and social stability, many countries have explored measures based on their own conditions, and gained experience in effectively combating terrorism and extremism.
多年来,为应对恐怖主义、极端主义的威胁,消除恐怖主义、极端主义滋生蔓延的土壤和条件,维护人民生命安全和社会稳定,世界上一些国家坚持从本国实际出发,积极探索反恐、去极端化有效办法,并积累了有益经验。
Some countries have established "deradicalization centers" to educate victims of extremist teachings and reverse their thinking. These centers rehabilitate the trainees through individual or collective sports activities and psychological counseling, and discussions on religion and secularity, and enable them to re-assimilate into society through skills and vocational training.
有的国家设立"去极端化中心",对受过极端主义感染的群体进行一段时间的教育转化,通过个体或集体体育活动、心理辅导,穿插对宗教现实和世俗主义的讨论等,使学员获得心理恢复,并通过技能和职业培训使学员重新融入社会。
Some countries have set up education and transformation centers. They divide extremists into three categories: those who recognize their error, latent criminals, and active criminals, and try to remove them from extremist influences with the assistance of their families and communities, together with measures like psychological intervention and economic aid.
有的国家设立"教育转化中心",把极端分子分为自首者、潜在者、犯罪者三类,依托家庭、社区,并配合精神干预治疗、经济帮扶等措施,进行去极端化改造。
Some countries educate and transform terrorists and potential terrorists in both prisons and communities, and deradicalize those involved in terrorist-related offences through the process of identification, assessment, rehabilitation, reeducation, return to society and follow-up.
有的国家在监狱和社区两个层面对恐怖分子及高危群体进行教育转化,通过甄别、康复、再教育、回归社会、评估等办法,对涉恐罪犯进行去极端化改造。
Some countries denounce the erroneous interpretation of Islamic doctrine by extremists, encourage religious inclusiveness, advocate "moderate Islam", and set up education centers to transform those influenced by extremist thinking in two phases – centralized control and return to society.
有的国家谴责极端分子对伊斯兰教义的错误解释,鼓励宗教包容,提出回归"温和伊斯兰",并设立教化中心,通过集中管控和回归社会两个阶段对受极端主义影响的人员进行教育转化。
Some countries have launched transformation and disengagement programs, compelling individuals with terrorist connections and suspected terrorist returnees to participate in training, and setting up isolation centers for extremists to prevent them from spreading extreme views to other detainees.
有的国家通过启动"转化和脱离"项目,强制要求曾涉恐人员和返国恐怖嫌犯必须参加培训,并在全国设立隔离中心,用于拘押极端分子,以防止其在监狱感染其他在押人员。
Some countries have taken measures in communities to intervene in the spread of extremism at its earliest stages, and mobilized society to prevent terrorist and extremist activities by taking timely action against any inclination on the part of young people to join extremist organizations.
有的国家在社区采取相关措施,对受极端主义影响的人员进行早期干预,并采取社会动员的方式及早发现并制止年轻人加入极端组织的企图,防止发生恐怖主义和极端主义行为。
Xinjiang's practice of educating and rehabilitating the victims of terrorist and religious extremist teachings through vocational education and training centers is similar to efforts by other countries and regions, with the same goals of dealing with the problem at source and protecting people's basic human rights.
新疆通过设立教培中心,开展教培工作,对受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义影响的人进行教育挽救,与世界上一些国家和地区的做法是相通的,目的都是为了防微杜渐、治病救人,最大限度保障公民的基本人权免受恐怖主义、极端主义侵害。
Xinjiang's vocational education and training programs have achieved notable results, and contributed experience to international actions against terrorism and extremism.
新疆开展教培工作,取得了显著成效,为国际社会开展反恐、去极端化探索出了有益经验。
– Fighting extremism in accordance with local conditions. In its vocational education and training, Xinjiang has learned from experience of other countries, and striven to achieve real results in line with the actual conditions of the autonomous region. In countering terrorism and extremism, Xinjiang draws on the experience of other countries, and provides people influenced by terrorist and religious extremist teachings with education in standard spoken and written Chinese, an understanding of the law, and training in vocational skills. These efforts have eradicated extremist thoughts, delivered widely recognized results, helped to safeguard social stability in the region, and protected the environment for the healthy development of religions.
——坚持因地制宜去极端化。新疆开展教培工作,既积极借鉴国际社会反恐、去极端化经验,又坚持从区情和面临的具体反恐、去极端化形势出发,有针对性地开展工作,力求取得实际效果。新疆紧密结合反恐、去极端化斗争实际,充分借鉴国际社会反恐和去极端化经验,对受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义影响的人有针对性地开展国家通用语言文字、法律知识、职业技能教育培训,祛除极端化思想,取得了社会公认的实际效果,有力维护了新疆的社会稳定,也有效维护了宗教健康发展的环境。
– Putting prevention first while taking firm action on terrorism and extremism. In its fight against terrorism and extremism, Xinjiang has consistently adopted the policy of addressing both the symptoms and root causes. On the one hand, Xinjiang strikes hard at terrorist and extremist forces, and on the other hand, it gives prevention a high priority, sparing no effort to educate and rehabilitate the large number of people who have committed only minor offences under the influence of terrorism and religious extremism. Xinjiang adopts an approach of rehabilitation rather than punishment and compassion rather than rejection to free them of religious extremist thinking. It teaches them laws and standard spoken and written Chinese, so that they can become educated individuals with vocational skills – useful individuals and individuals of value to society.
——坚持打防结合、预防为主。坚持标本兼治方针,一手抓打击,对恐怖主义、极端主义保持高压态势;一手抓预防,以教育挽救为主。通过开展教培工作,对多数受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义影响但罪行较轻的人,进行教育挽救保护,用拉的方式而不是推的方式,用挽救的方式而不是严惩的方式,用关爱的方式而不是嫌弃的方式,进行帮教,使其摆脱宗教极端主义的束缚,能够知法守法,能够掌握国家通用语言文字,并具备一定的知识文化和劳动技能,成为对社会有用的人,实现人生价值。
– Promoting the rule of law. It is an essential requirement of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics to build a socialist country governed by the rule of law. In the process of promoting vocational education and training and eliminating the environment for breeding terrorism and religious extremism, Xinjiang promotes the rule of law, upholds the authority of the Constitution and laws, adopts appropriate legal thinking and measures to deal with problems, and confines all its efforts within the legal framework. The deradicalization work of the vocational education and training centers is always based on facts and laws, without targeting any specific region, ethnic group or religion.
——坚持弘扬法治精神。依法治国、建设社会主义法治国家,是建设中国特色社会主义的本质要求。新疆开展教培工作,消除恐怖主义、宗教极端主义滋生土壤和环境,始终高举法治旗帜,坚决维护宪法和法律权威,坚持运用法治思维和法治方式处理问题,使各项工作始终在法治轨道上进行。教培中心的去极端化工作,始终坚持以事实为根据,以法律为准绳,坚持不与特定地域、民族、宗教挂钩。
– Respecting and protecting human rights. The vocational education and training efforts in Xinjiang protect people's basic human rights, and at the same time rehabilitate as far as possible those who have committed unlawful or criminal offences under the influence of religious extremist teachings. The centers place the trainees first, manage them in line with regulations like schools, provide people-centered services, strictly prohibit any form of humiliation or mistreatment, and guarantee their personal freedom. In the centers, the trainees receive high-quality education and training in diverse skills, and their right to education is fully safeguarded.
——坚持尊重和保障人权。开展教培工作,既保障了各族人民的基本人权免受侵害,又最大限度地挽救了受宗教极端主义影响的有违法犯罪行为人员。教培中心坚持以人为本,依法实行规范化、学校化管理,提供人性化服务,严禁以任何方式对学员进行人格侮辱和虐待,保障学员的人身自由。教培中心为学员提供优质的教学资源和多样化的技能培训,最大限度保障学员享有受教育权利。
– The government must take on the responsibility and achieve tangible results. It is the bounden duty of a responsible government to protect its people's lives, health, property, and other basic rights, and provide a safe, stable and harmonious living environment. Governments at all levels in Xinjiang, bearing their responsibility to the people in mind, are engaged in a host of patient, careful and extremely hard efforts to educate and rehabilitate victims of terrorist and religious extremist teachings. Success in vocational education and training promotes justice, safeguards people's dignity and presents a positive image of government.
——坚持政府担当有为。保障人民生命权、健康权、财产权,使人民各项基本权利免受侵犯,在安定祥和的社会环境中生活,是一个负责任的政府义不容辞的责任。新疆各级政府,本着对人民高度负责的态度,对受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义影响的人,进行教育挽救,做了大量耐心细致的工作,付出了难以想象的艰辛。教培工作的成功开展,伸张了社会正义,维护了人的尊严,树立了政府良好形象。

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